Contact: Steve Newmaster
University of Guelph
Consumers of natural health products beware. The majority of herbal products on the market contain ingredients not listed on the label, with most companies substituting cheaper alternatives and using fillers, according to new research from the University of Guelph.
The study, published today in the open access journal BMC Medicine, used DNA barcoding technology to test 44 herbal products sold by 12 companies.
Only two of the companies provided authentic products without substitutions, contaminants or fillers.
Overall, nearly 60 per cent of the herbal products contained plant species not listed on the label.
Researchers detected product substitution in 32 per cent of the samples.
More than 20 per cent of the products included fillers such as rice, soybeans and wheat not listed on the label.
“Contamination and substitution in herbal products present considerable health risks for consumers,” said lead author Steven Newmaster, an integrative biology professor and botanical director of the Guelph-based Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO), home of the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding.
“We found contamination in several products with plants that have known toxicity, side effects and/or negatively interact with other herbs, supplements and medications.”
One product labelled as St. John’s wort contained Senna alexandrina, a plant with laxative properties. It’s not intended for prolonged use, as it can cause chronic diarrhea and liver damage and negatively interacts with immune cells in the colon.
Several herbal products contained Parthenium hysterophorus (feverfew), which can cause swelling and numbness in the mouth, oral ulcers, and nausea. It also reacts with medications metabolized by the liver.
One ginkgo product was contaminated with Juglans nigra (black walnut), which could endanger people with nut allergies.
Unlabelled fillers such as wheat, soybeans and rice are also a concern for people with allergies or who are seeking gluten-free products, Newmaster said.
“It’s common practice in natural products to use fillers such as these, which are mixed with the active ingredients. But a consumer has a right to see all of the plant species used in producing a natural product on the list of ingredients.”
Until now, verifying what’s inside capsules or tablets has posed challenges, Newmaster said. His research team developed standard methods and tests using DNA barcoding to identify and authenticate ingredients in herbal products.
“There is a need to protect consumers from the economic and health risks associated with herbal product fraud. Currently there are no standards for authentication of herbal products.”
Medicinal herbs now constitute the fastest-growing segment of the North American alternative medicine market, with more than 29,000 herbal substances sold, he said.
More than 1,000 companies worldwide make medicinal plant products worth more than $60 billion a year.
About 80 per cent of people in developed countries use natural health products, including vitamins, minerals and herbal remedies.
Canada has regulated natural health products since 2004. Regulators face a backlog of licence applications, and thousands of products on the market lack a full product licence. Globally, regulatory problems involving natural health products continue to affect consistency and safety, Newmaster said.
“The industry suffers from unethical activities by some of the manufacturers.”
The study also involved research associate Subramanyam Ragupathy, U of G student Meghan Gruric and Sathishkumar Ramalingam of the Bharathiar University in India.
This research was supported by Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute; the Canada Foundation for Innovation; International Science and Technology Partnership Canada; and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
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As the use of herbal medicine continues to grow, within the next 50 years it will have replaced conventional medicine as the primary means of treatment, Dr. Nyoman Kertia, a professor at Gadjah Mada University’s School of Medicine in Yogyakarta, has predicted.
“We need only to learn from the herbal knowledge handed down by our forbearers, rather than from that of other nations. I want to delve further into the efficacy of herbal drugs and develop them for human health,” said the 53-year-old father of five from Bali.
According to him, the time-honored ancestral tradition and the example set by Indonesians today who enjoy good health through herbal drug consumption should never be overlooked. It also means that the development of herbal formulas needn’t be done from scratch.
“The empirical evidence for being healthy by ingesting jamu [herbal medicine] and other such concoctions needs only to be followed up with scientific research,” he said.
Because little scientific research has been done on herbal medicines, such treatments are relegated to a secondary role as most people rely on conventional or chemical medicines. “Some doctors or hospitals have often been allergic to giving out herbal drugs for fear of being seen as unscientific by the public,” said Nyoman.
Nevertheless, the popularity of herbal medicines, he said, was increasing. As chairman of the herbal medicine team at Yogyakarta’s Dr. Sardjito General Hospital since 2008, Nyoman indicated that herbal drugs were being prescribed more frequently now, mostly for chronic ailments like heart disease and certain types of cancer, due to their lower costs.
“They’ve been used as a complement to conventional drugs. In fact, some herbs are also used to heal diseases just like modern medicines do, but without the side-effects. Such herbs have been subjected to clinical tests and are verified phyto-pharmaceuticals,” said Nyoman, who was a researcher of Indonesian herbal drugs with the Food and Drug Control Agency from 2004 to 2006. He also previously studied acupuncture in China and rheumatism in Australia, and in 1999 he was named best researcher by the Indonesian Rheumatologists Association.
Herbal drugs are grouped in two categories, jamu and phyto-pharmaceuticals, which are those that have already been scientifically tested for efficacy and healing capability.
Sadly, most of the thousands of herbal raw materials in Indonesia are processed into jamu, while only six have been standardized into phyto-pharmaceuticals. These six are effective for treating various disorders like diarrhea, rheumatism, high cholesterol, erectile dysfunction and hypertension.
“The development of phyto-pharmaceutical herbs has been slow because each takes three to five years to study and costs billions of rupiah. Government allocations to this health sector are too small, totaling just Rp 250 million (US$21,750) to 300 million per province, thus making it hard to promote more herbs to this category,” Nyoman said.
The current dominance of jamu in herbal drug production has indeed made physicians wary of prescribing these medicines. However, Nyoman noted that in 2012 there were 2,720 herbal prescriptions issued to hospital patients nationwide.
“It was a really heartening development, showing that doctors had become less averse to prescribing herbal drugs. Hopefully, this will inspire other physicians in their herbal treatments,” he said, adding the materials most frequently used in common herbal medicines were extracts of white teak, pare (fruit of a shrub, Momordica charabtia), seledri (celery), pegagan (pennywort), kunyit (turmeric), mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia), jinten (caraway seeds), temulawak (white turmeric), ginger and ceplukan (cut-leaf ground cherry).
Herbal drugs are also prescribed for patients with internal diseases and skin conditions, as well as for tooth, mouth and childhood ailments. But they are still most prescribed for cancer and disorders related to aging. “The herbs are prescribed by specialists rather than general practitioners, and this tendency is increasing,” he said.
The medical circles already turning to the use of herbal drugs are now affiliated with the Association of Doctors for Eastern Medicine Promotion (PDPKT) and the Indonesian Herbal Medical Doctors Association (PDHMI).
Indonesia has over 7,000 medicinal herbs, 283 of which are used for natural or herbal drug manufacturing. “Ironically, we still import 96 percent of our herbal drug raw materials, which is a very tragic fact,” said Nyoman.
Admitting that he wasn’t sure how the quality of Indonesian herbs compared with imported ones, he was convinced that local products should be at least equal in quality to those from India, China, the Middle East and other countries.
“Those from other nations are better promoted so they appear to be superior. Indonesian herbal drugs still lack promotional efforts,” said Nyoman.
Therefore, he hoped the government would get involved in the promotion of local herbal medicines and issue a regulation to protect the public from the influx of foreign products so that consumers could critically and wisely make their choices.
Indonesian herbal drugs were accepted by three hospitals in 2005, which have since prescribed these medicines. The number rose to 18 hospitals in 2009, and now there are 54 scattered over eight provinces. In other countries, over half of their hospitals have applied herbal complementary therapy.
Q.: I love pansies, but mine don’t seem to do very well. Could you give me some guidelines for planting and caring for them?
A.: In Georgia, we are lucky to be able to grow pansies throughout the winter and enjoy their jewel tones as they help to brighten our dreary landscape. They are hardy from zones 6-8, where they survive the freezing winter weather to bounce back when the warmer temperatures return. Here they lose their blooms during the coldest weather, only to bloom again as soon as the temperature rises Their one major drawback is that deer also enjoy them.
Their name is derived from the French word “pensee” which means thought or remembrance. In the 4th Century B.C.E., they were used as medicinal herbs. Now, we have more than 500 species available in colors that range from dark gem-like hues to pastels and come in solids as well as all kinds of two-tone and blotched combinations.
Pansies are easy to grow if planted properly and given the right care. The best time to plant in our area is the first half of October, when nighttime temperatures are in the 60s and the soil temperature is below 70 degrees.
Rolando Orellana, a University of Georgia (UGA) Cooperative Extension agent in north Fulton County, says to buy good quality plants that have dark green leaves, compact stems, leaves and flowers, and are free of insects. If you are planting in the earlier part of the season, small plants will have plenty of time to grow and develop strong roots; but if you are planting later, larger plants with larger root systems will bloom earlier and longer.
UGA Extension horticulturist Gary Wade says to make sure the plants are well watered before planting, because it is hard to wet a dry root ball once it is in the ground. They should be planted in full sun in moist, well-drained soil. A bed raised about 12 inches above normal grade in best. It also shows off the short plants better.
He reminds us that pansies are annuals and that annuals require a lot of care, so don’t buy more plants than you can maintain. Clean all of the mulch and plant material from previously used beds and top new beds with 4 inches of organic matter and work it in about one foot deep. Broadcast about 1 pound per 100 square foot bed of a balanced fertilizer, such as 10-10-10 or 8-8-8, over the bed before planting and rake it into the top 4 inches of soil.
Place plants about 10 inches apart. (about 144 plants for a 100-square-foot bed), and mulch well with 2 to 3 inches of pine straw, pine bark or shredded hardwood mulch. Immediately after planting water the bed thoroughly with a liquid fertilizer, such as 20-20-20 or 15-30-14. Routinely water plants between 6 a.m. and 9 p.m., keeping the bed moist, but not wet. Apply liquid fertilizer once a month during the winter.
Regularly deadhead (remove the old blooms as they fade) to keep them blooming well and reduce disease. During extremely cold weather, the plants may appear stressed, but usually snap back when the temperature rises.
For more information, see the UGA Extension guide, Success with Pansies in the Winter Landscape: A Guide for Landscape Professionals by Wade and Thomas at http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/horticulture/pansies.html or contact the UGA Extension Carroll County Office at 900 Newnan Rd., 770-836-8546.
Birth of the Bravehearts Koti and Chennaya under Tulunadu King Budyanta
Birth of the Bravehearts Koti and Chennaya under Tulunadu King Budyanta
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By Edward DSouza
<!–Report By:By Edward DSouza
Bellevision Media Network
Bairarasas of Karkala Dynasty
The Alupas were the first to rule Karkala. Their rule was followed by the Santaras, who were the feudatories of Alupas for many years. Karkala, or ancient PandyaNagari, attained political and cultural importance from the time of the Kalasa-Karkala kingdom that was established by BhairarasaOdeyas between 13th and 16th centuries. The Bhairarasas appear to be the descendants of the Santara chiefs, who ruled the Western Ghats region around the 11th century AD.
The royal family of Karkala shot to prominence right from the time of the Hoysalas. During the Vijayanagara period this family reached new heights of glory. Their kingdom extended over a wider area comprising Sringeri, Koppa, Balehonnur and Mudigere in Chikamagalur and most of the Karkala taluk. They were rich and maintained a large army. Despite engaging in wars, peace prevailed in the kingdom and this led to increased cultural activity and development.
The first important king was VeeraBhairava, who constructed basadis at Karkala and endowed land and money to numerous temples and basadis. Ramanatha and Veerapandya were his two sons. Ramanatha died during his father’s time. In his memory, a scenic lake called Ramasamudra was created, which still survives.
King VeeraPandya, at the insistence of his Guru Lalitakeerti, the pontiff of Karkala Jaina Math, installed a large statue of Bahubali on the rocky hill of Karkala. The date of the installation has been ascertained as February 13, 1432. Veera Pandya also installed the Brahmadeva Pillar in front of the statue in 1436.
Abinava Pandya ascended the throne next and it was he who installed a carving of manastambha in front of the Neminatha Basadi in Hiriyangadi in 1457 AD. An intricately carved 54-foot-high (16 m) pillar stands in front of the Basadi. The Neminatha Basadi was renovated in 1946. An oriental school with free boarding and lodging facilities is being run here by the Bhujabali Brahmacharya Ashrama.
Abhinava Pandya’s successor was Pandya VI. He built the Kere Basadi in the middle of a lake called Anekere in 1545 AD. It is in this lake that the king’s elephants used to bathe. The Basadi and the lake still exist.
The next important king was ImmadiBhairava (Bhairava II). He constructed the ChaturmukhaBasadi on top of a small rocky hill in 1586 AD. The Basadi has four identical entrances from the four quarters leading to the Garbagriha and hence is popularly known as ChaturmukhaBasadi. This is the most celebrated structural temple in Karkala and is referred to in inscriptions as Tribhuvana Tilaka Jina Chaityalaya and Ratnaraya Dhama. The Chaturmukha Basadi is built in the form of a square mandapa or hall with a lofty doorway and pillared portico on each of its four sides and a pillared verandah. The roof is flat and is made of massive granite slabs. It has life-size statues of three theerthankaras on each side and small images of 24 theerthankaras. It took 30 years to construct this temple. In all, there are 108 pillars inside and outside the temple.
This place also came under the rule of Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. In addition to his role as ruler, he was a scholar, soldier, and poet. It was under him that some of the untold and disappearing landmarks of Karkal(ಕಾರ್ಕಲ್) were made.
One of the most immanent of the time was the Kotaykani moat made in front of the KarkalKotay castle, which was used during his war against the East India Company. In this war against EIC, few of Indian Kingdom of Mysore’s elite soldiers with huge contribution and service towards the land and kingdom were granted title and land in the township of Karkala. One such title is Karkala Patayath. Second such marvel of the same regime is to discover the usage of a Gavi (or cave) route to travel to various surrounding location unseen through the mountains located near ShivatiKeray (Lord Shiva’s lake).
There are 18 basadis of antiquity, including MahaveeraBasadi, ChandranathaswamyBasadi, AdinathaswamyBasadi, AnanthanathaBasadi, Guru Basadi, and PadmavathiBasadi. However, the rulers of Karkala were tolerant towards other religions.
Therefore, temples of other religions exist, including the temples of Anantashayana and Venkataramana, MahamayaMukhyaprana, and Adi Shakti.
The St Lawrence Church was built in 1845 in a village called Nitte (Attur hamlet) where people of all religions congregate every year in January for the feast of St Lawrence.
Ballals of Padumale Dynasty
King Perumala Ballala
The story dates back to the 17th and 18th centuries to a place named Padumale. King PerumalaBallala ruled the territory. The king desired to build a lavish palace – the unparalleled beauty of which would far outlive his lifetime. After a thorough search, he zeroed on Mallaya who was known for his intelligence and work. Mallaya built a magnificent palace as desired by the king. Being immensely pleased with the work, the King – PerumalaBallala, conferred on him a name “Budyanta” which meant an Intelligent and brilliant man. The king made him a minister and slowly Budyanta took over complete charge of the kingdom. The king slowly withdrew from the day-to-day affairs and delegated his power to Budyanta. The wise say “power corrupts….. and absolute power corrupts absolutely”. Budyanta got intoxicated with power and became a dreaded, arrogant and ruthless minister who oppressed the poor subjects of the land.
The Dream: One day, towards noon, PerumalaBallala had a terrifying dream. The king sought explanation for his dream. BiraBalyaya, the famous soothsayer explained that if he does not perform rituals which were performed by his ancestors, it would not be good for the land. PerumalaBallala, following the rituals of his ancestors went for hunting. While returning after a successful hunt, a thorn pierced his foot and nothing could stop the bleeding. On reaching the palace the king’s wound swelled and the intense pain pushed him to near unconscious statement. No treatment or medicine could heal his wound or ease his pain. The king then asked for DeyiBaideti to be called. DeyiBaideti, who specialized in ayurveda was a vaidya by family tradition. Since she was pregnant, the king arranged to bring her in a royal palanquin (dandige). Before proceeding further, it is important to know story of Deyi Baideti.
Deyi Baideti: Pijinar an issue-less Brahmin, used to go to the seashore every day to offer prayers to God. One day to his surprise, a bright golden coloured egg-shaped object floated towards him. He carried the egg-shaped object home. The couple opened it to find a female baby with a glowing golden skin. Pijinar named her ’SuvarnaKedage’. SuvarnaKedage grew into a beautiful young girl. She attained puberty at an early age of seven. According to social customs prevailing then, if a girl attained puberty before her marriage, she was abandoned by the society. Under societal pressure, the teary eyed Pijina took SuvarnaKedage to Sankamale forest. He removed her gold ornaments and clothes while she was asleep and left her alone in the forest. Thus she was forced not to return home. SayanaBaida, a vaidya (doctor) by profession, was walking through the Sankamale forest in search of medicinal herbs. On hearing the wailing of SuvarnaKedage, SayanaBaida rushed to the terrified.
His heart filled with pain and compassion for the poor girl. He accepted her as his sister and took her to his home.
He named SuvarnaKedage after his late sister Deyi. His sister Deyi was married to KantanaBaida and had a daughter named Kinnidaru. SuvarnaKedage now known as Deyibaideti soon became an expert in the preparation of ayurvedic medicines. She got married to KantanaBaida but they did not have marital relations as he looked at her in veneration.
Her prayers to KemmalajeNagabrahma yielded and she became pregnant by divine grace while taking a bath in a lake.
Deyi Baideti treats King – Perumala Ballala: DeyiBaideti got the message from the king to treat her and proceeded to the palace. The suffering PerumalaBalalla promised her that he would give anything she asked, if she could cure him. Deyi started her herbal treatment and slowly the King recovered to his good health. Knowing that her knowledge of medicine had been put to good use, Deyi asked for the King’s permission to leave and reminded him gently about his promise. The ungrateful King denied having made any such promise.
Deyi left the palace wondering about changed behaviour of the king. As she stepped out of the Palace, the Kings wound was torn apart. Immediately he sent his queen to bring Deyi back. The queen pleaded with Deyi to save her husband’s life. Softhearted Deyireturned to treat the King once again. The king felt ashamed at his ungrateful behaviour and requested to be forgiven. Soon the kings wounds healed and the kingdom celebrated his rejuvenation.
Birth of the Bravehearts – Koti and Chennaya: A naming ceremony was arranged and the king named the twins as Koti(Sun) and Chennaya(Moon). The children’s horoscopes predicted that the boys would bring name and fame to their land. The very next morning of the naming ceremony, Deyi’s soul departed for heavenly abode. PerumalaBallala was taken by grief at sudden demise of Deyi who came as a God in disguise to save his life. He arranged for a stately funeral.
The king asked KantanaBaida and SayanaBaida to leave Deyi’s children in the palace as it would be difficult for Kantana and Sayana to take care of the newborn twins. The two with a heavy heart acceded to the king’s request and went home. They looked forward to the day Koti-Chennaya would be big enough to be taken back home.
The twins became center of attraction and affection in the palace. The king played with them and treated them like his own children. They sat on his lap, they shared food with him, they slept by his side. Their royal qualities impressed the king very much. The king’s growing affection towards the twins made shrewd Budhyanta jealous. He feared someday the boys would overshadow him and thus he would lose his importance. He succeeded in inciting the Queen against the boys and the queen started pestering the King to send the boys back.
Budhyanta’s plan worked and one day the king called for SayanaBaida and handed over the custody of the boys to him. Their father Kantana had an untimely death. King ordered Sayana to send them to Gymnasium and to make them learn archery. He promised Sayana to take care of all their needs; milk, food and clothing. They left the palace and were warmly welcomed by the baida community.
Koti and Chennaya loved playing. Once when they were aged around seven, they approached some children playing with a ball (or palle-a red dry fruit almost flat on both sides). They were Budhyantas children. Koti-Chennaya requested the boys to include them in the team, but Budyantas arrogant children refused to allow them because they were from different caste. Koti-Chennaya tried in vain to make them understand that caste-system had nothing to do with children’s play.
Finally Budhyantas children agreed to play on the condition that whoever wins would keep the ball. Koti-Chennaya won the game but the Budhyantas children refused to part with the ball. The Strongly built Koti-Chennaya beat them up. Budyantas children started crying loudly. Just then, Budhyanta who was nearby in the fields, stepped in on hearing the loud cries of his children. Taking his children’s side Budhyanta scolded Koti-Chennaya for snatching the ball. After some exchange of words, Budhyanta forcibly took the ball away from Koti-Chennaya. Furious, at this act of Budhyanta, Koti-Chennaya took a vow to take back the ball when they grew up. This incident sowed the seeds of hatred for Budhyanta in the hearts of young Koti-Chennaya.
Garadi: The handsome brothers joined Garadi for extensive training in bodybuilding, archery and fencing. They soon become very popular for their bravery and skill in armed fights. Koti-Chennaya’s brotherly love for each other made them even stronger. The well-mannered, noble, fearless boys became talk of the town. Now quite grown-up, Koti-Chennaya had a burning desire to see King Perumala Ballala.
They visited the king with large number of followers in a procession complete with horses and musical band. The king received them with great love and affection. Koti-Chennaya presented a gift to the King. As Budhyanta was not offered a gift he became angry and left the Court in a huff. On the kings advice, Koti-Chennaya visited Budhyantas place with a gift. Although his ego was satisfied in making Koti-Chennaya come to his place with a gift, Budhyanta made them wait for hours. He ignored their presence. Tired with long waiting and irritated by the lack of respect from Budyanta, Koti-Chennaya left the place with heavy heart. Their hatred for him became more intense.
Suralu Tolahara Rulers
During medieval period, coastal Karnataka had come under the administrative control of many influential royal families. From the beginning of the Christian era up to mid-14th century, Alupas had ruled. The Hoysalas, Vijayanagara and the Nayaks of Keladi-Ikkeri had extended their administration over this province. Apart from these, several feudatory ruling families and petty (Palepattugalu) chieftains had effectively carried on their own administration in Udupi and Dakshina Kannada.
Prominent among them were the Tolaharas (Tolahaararu), who had administered larger part of Udupi taluk, from a place called Suralu in the district. It is believed that, this family and the Chawta family belonged to one and the same royal stock. They had ruled over Suralu, Shiriyara, Nalvattunadu, Kelanadu, Shankaranarayana, Basaruru, Horaladi, Pajamanguru, Jaddu, Haluvalli, Kenjuru, Hosuru, Nalkuru, Kuji, Peraduru, Neelavara, Vaddarse, Halligeri, Bainduru, Kirimanjeshwara, and KalthoduMaganes. Suralu, about eight km east from Barakuru, the capital of the Tuluva kingdom, was their capital. Kokkarane, near River Seetha, was another capital. Basaruru was a prominent port.
It is said that, the existing palace at Suralu was built during the 15th century. It is also stated that, among the twelve palaces in the old Dakshina Kannada district, which belonged to the DoddaJainaraja family, this is the only palace found in good condition. In front of the palace, on the western direction, there is an extensive royal hall, measuring two acres in extent. Next to this, there is also a small ante-chamber like space. Moving on from the main-door (Hebbagilu) of this ante-chamber, another royal hall, half an acre in extent, will be noticed, and next to that, is yet another smaller antechamber. Adjacent to this, is a big hall, square in shape, locally known as Chavadi, built by the Peradur-Gutti family.
This palace is a prominent piece of architecture, comprising several curious divisions. The members of this family had built several temples, the most prominent among them are found at Suralu, Pademata, Karji, Vaddambettu, Maradi, Ammunje, Neelavara, Perduru, Shankaranarayana and Basaruru. It is evident from the inscriptions that, during their administration, the temples at Peraduru and Neelavara had received sufficient lands and ornaments, in the form of gifts.
On the basis of each of the three copper plate inscriptions found here it is gathered successively that, 1) during A.D.1688, MahalingaTolahara was ruling this province; 2) during A.D.1691, MadanadeviTolahara was ruling the province; 3) by the time of A.D.1715, CheluvammadeviTolahara of this family was ruling. It is said that, the rulers of the Tolahara family, by virtue of their great valour, prevented the Portuguese, to some extent, from the occupation of the west coast of Udupi district.
In spite of the fact that, the Tolaharas had built a strong fort at Basaruru and stationed a huge army, a Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese army called Piyatro de Silva, invaded the province with his three ships, during A.D.1569. During A.D.1608, (Hiriya) Senior Venkatappanayaka, the ruler of Ikkeri, had tried to capture Barakuru on the coast, and in the process had annexed BainduruSime, HalligeriSime, and Nalavattu Nadu. During the reign of IkkeriNayaks, Tolahara rulers were managing their administration very gloriously. But, as a consequence of Hyder Ali taking control over the province, the administration of the Tolaharas came to an end.
The Suralu palace was built way back in 1511 AD. It was renovated once in 1858. It has been ruled by the Alupas, Tolahars and Tipu Sultan, among other rulers. King NagendraTolahar was the last of the rulers to be coroneted in this palace.
Chandrashekarayya, a descendant of the Tolahar ruler, lived in this palace till 1983. He sincerely tried to protect the palace but soon after him, the palace was abandoned, and in consequence, it began to crumble down.
- Part – 1: A wonderful history of Tulunadu ruled by Major Tulu Rulers and her rich heritage….
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Get a jump on next year’s garden (and flu season) by learning how to plant, tend, harvest and use medicinal herbs in your own backyard. This one day class is offered free of charge by instructor Dara Seville at local nursery Plants of the Southwest, so it should be easy to get your hands on some herbal goodness perfectly suited for an Albuquerque plant bed. (Ty Bannerman)
Hong Kong has more than its fair share of gastronomic meccas, but diners are becoming more health-conscious than ever. The healthy eating craze is eating into many aspects of Hong Kong’s food industry, and it’s not just restaurant customers who are trying to slim.
Some of Hong Kong’s biggest name chefs, Michelin star winners Harlan Goldstein and Alvin Leung, recently took part in a much-publicised battle over who could shed the most weight. Even influential food blogger Peter Chang, of Diary of a Growing Boy, has begun a series he calls Diary of a Shrinking Boy, detailing his new healthy lifestyle.
The craze for health-conscious dining is also an opportunity for restaurateurs to cash in, and many have been adding special healthy eating options to their menus.
The Great Vision Group – which runs restaurants such as Q-Deck in Wan Chai, Bulldog branches across town and most recently Forbes 36 in Kennedy Town – has gone a step further, enlisting muay Thai world champion Alain Ngalani to design a special healthy menu to his exacting standards.
You would be hard-pressed to find a better poster child for healthy living than the rippling mass of muscle that is Ngalani. He has a personal stake in the proliferation of healthy menus, too. “I don’t really cook,” he says over a thick mozzarella and spinach stuffed chicken breast from Q-Deck’s Impakt Your Life menu (Ngalani represents Impakt gym).
“Eating out healthily in Hong Kong is not easy. There are now a few places with healthy stuff, but you’re generally better off cooking for yourself,” he adds.
Ngalani hopes to change that situation. Those who still picture healthy food as a pile of steamed spinach or cottage cheese and half a grapefruit will be pleasantly surprised by the Impakt Your Life menu. Aside from the chicken breast, there is also a large portion of salmon, a 12-ounce Australian rib-eye, and seafood linguini, all served in big, pub-style portions.
Ngalani admits he had to make some compromises when he designed the new menu. He began by selecting the existing items that were already fairly healthy. “I tried to pick out the things that were calorie-friendly.”
Getting too extreme would have been a waste, he says: “I don’t like crazy diets or crash diets. I like to be realistic; it’s about making a slight change. Hong Kong people like to party, they like to enjoy themselves. In my experience, if you put them on a diet it will never last. You have to give them something nice, so they’ll stick to it.”
Ngalani is more than hands-on as far as the menu is concerned: he claims he eats the chicken breast every day. Whether his physique is thanks to the chicken, or the two hours he spends training in the gym each day, is open to debate.
Other restaurants that have hopped on the healthy eating bandwagon include Cantonese fine dining destination Ming Court at Langham Place in Mong Kok, which has teamed up with a doctor who specialises in traditional Chinese medicine.
The menu, with dishes such as whole superior pigeon with wolfberry and lily bulb, uses traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and ingredients to focus on holistic health over calorie counting. The pigeon is supposed to improve vision and nourish the liver and kidneys.
The Ritz-Carlton has introduced a lunch buffet at Café 103 that features organic produce and options such as seafood and a selection of greens.
Then there’s chef Harlan Goldstein himself. He has added healthy dishes to the lunch menu at Gold, no doubt inspired by his recent weight loss.
Now lunchtime calorie counters can enjoy dishes such as salmon over soba noodles. Goldstein takes his healthy menu seriously. “These dishes focus on balancing calories from protein and complex carbohydrates,” he says. Since he “eats this way every day” he is personally invested in making sure the items are flavourful.
But don’t expect a lot of diet options for dinner. “A healthy lunch keeps people energised throughout the day, but at night I want them to go crazy,” Goldstein says.
By AZoM.com Staff Writers
Significance of Sample Preparation
Sample Preparation Process Using Cutting Mills
Cryogenic Grinding Process
Advantages of Fritsch Mills
About FRITSCH GmbH – Milling and Sizing
Natural ingredients found in medicinal plants are gaining popularity as doctors, pharmacists, and researchers explore them to discover new active components for the development of phytopharmaceuticals. Further development of natural chemicals identified in plants is promising as a solution to systematically eliminate the side effects of classic drugs. These medicinal plants have also found use in cosmetic products.
However, these medicinal plants need to get regulatory approval for their quality, efficacy and safety as they often contain traces of heavy metals or pesticides. Moreover, not declared synthetic agents are often added for improving the efficacy of the medicinal plant. Hence, it is necessary to test these products for harmful substances, such as heavy metals and pesticides.
Before starting an instrumental analysis (HPLCV, AAS, ICP), homogenizing the raw materials as well as the finished products for sample preparation is essential. The available diversity and technical production conditions of these medicinal plants need to be considered for sample preparation. Mechanical comminution is used for extracting many different medicinal plants in small batches so that the degree of effectiveness can be increased with reduced extraction time.
Cutting forces, as well as a combination of cutting and shearing forces, can be employed as a reliable technique for comminuting and preparing the unprocessed plant parts, such as root, seeds, and blossoms, which exhibit half-solid, plasto-elastic properties. Two different types of mill from Fritsch can be used for the mechanical comminution and homogenization of medicinal plants. One is the Variable-Speed Rotor Mill PULVERISETTE 14, which provides fine comminution down to a grain size range of up to 80µm and a sample quantity of up to 150g in batches. A samples of ground ginger is depicted in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Ground ginger.
However, the Universal-Cutting Mill PULVERISETTE 19 is the most frequently used mill for this purpose as it yields a much higher throughput, which enables processing of a larger representative sample and thereby cutting of bigger seeds, fruits and roots. However, the ingredients of medicinal herbs create a problem during the sample preparation.
Many plants consist of relatively large quantities of saponins, alkaloids, glykosidic compounds, etheric oils, and resin-like parts, which make the process of gentle comminution in the fine particle range of 250µm impossible. This is due to the development of a high degree of physical strain and associated temperature on the sieve inserts of 250µm used for this operation.
Considering this fact, it is recommended to add cooling media such as liquid nitrogen and carbon dioxide dry ice pellets to accomplish the mechanical comminution in these particle size ranges.
Cryogenic grinding process not only reduces the temperature strain of the material, but also alters the fracture behavior in the event of the comminution process, thereby allowing the material or break faster under mechanical force. Furthermore, the addition of liquid nitrogen reduces the formation of larger ice crystals, thus allowing for only the moderate damage of the existing cell structure and thereby maintaining the quality of the medical plant largely intact.
In addition, with a minimal material density and a small sieve passage surface, the already comminuted material can easily move in the grinding chamber in the air current created by the rotating cutting rotor. Fennel seeds and ground fennel are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Fennel seeds and ground fennel.
By using the cyclone separator in both PULVERISETTE 19 and PULVERISETTE 14, both temperature development and reduced material throughput problems can be eliminated. However, the separation is limited to be used only in homogenous sample preparation processes to avoid cross contamination of the components.
The hygienic design of the Universal Cutting Mill PULVERISETTE 19 is another advantage of the mill. Cutting Mills are typically fabricated with ‘rough edges’ owing to their comminution principle. However, the Universal Cutting Mill PULVERISETTE 19 is designed particularly for easy handling and cleaning, thereby reducing the occurrence of ‘unclean corners’ as much as possible. Additionally, the surfaces exposed to the sample are applied with high quality, smooth materials.
Fritsch is one of the internationally leading manufacturers of application-oriented laboratory instruments for sample preparation and particle sizing.
Below is a list of the Fritsch instrument range:
- Mills for crushing, micro-milling, mixing, homogenising of hard-brittle, fibrous, elastic and or soft materials dry or in suspension.
- Instruments for particle size determination according to laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering and dynamic image analysis and sieving.
- Laboratory Instruments for representative dividing of dry and wet samples, controlled sample feeding, ultrasonic cleaning.
Laboratories worldwide count on our quality and experience – for the fast industrial application as well as for the especially accurate research technology applications in the industry- and research laboratories.
This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by FRITSCH GmbH – Milling and Sizing.
For more information on this source, please visit FRITSCH GmbH – Milling and Sizing.
For the last two weeks, I have been discussing a particularly powerful healing plant like none I have come across before, the aloe family of plants (alluded to in previous articles).
Unlike the other 300 or 400 species found in different continents, aloe arborescens has phytocompounds and nutrients superior to other plants, even superseding the popular aloe vera plant found in the form of juice in health stores and which is included in most skincare products.
According to Father Zago’s book, Aldo Facetti, a herbalist, said in an interview on TV Riviera that, “Aloe vera, or barbadensis, provides 40 percent of the active ingredients against cancer, while the arborescens variety provides 70 percent,” making it very potent.
I know from the numerous e-mails I receive that readers are eager to know the contents of the aloe formula created by Father Romano Zago of Brazil.
The mixture is basically made up of the aloe arborescens mature leaf, or frond, of a 5-year-old plant. The time of harvesting is important in order to protect the potency of the active phytocompounds and polysaccharides and to ensure the effectiveness of the formula.
The ingredients are:
• 350 grams of aloe arborescens mature leaf
• 500 grams of pure, raw, non-commercial honey
• 40 milliliters of organic apple vinegar
Mix the three ingredients in a blender and store the mixture in a dark glass bottle in the refrigerator. The measurement of the ingredients need not be as accurate as listed above. Any discrepancy in the measurements of the honey will not affect the effectiveness or reduce the potency of the mixture.
To prepare, you should wipe the thick pulpy leaves from dust or soil with a dry cloth; remove the thorns on both edges of the leaf with a sharp knife; cut the leaf in chunks; and beat both green and pulp in the blender. Add the honey and vinegar and blend until smooth. Pour the mixture in a dark glass bottle. For more protection from light, wrap the bottle with aluminum foil and store in the refrigerator for the 10-day course. Shake well before drinking.
For maximum effect, the mixture should be consumed on an empty stomach before meals, as undiluted gastric acids help the ingredients to be taken up by the bloodstream and transported to the body, brain and systems. Absorption of the components may become comprised when taken during or after meals, rendering it less effective.
A a preventative measure against cancer, 1 to 2 tablespoons should be taken before the three meals for 10 days a year. Two tablespoons should be taken three times daily for 10 days for treating cancer. A 10-day resting period is important. Repeat the course until the cancer goes into remission. After two or three courses of the aloe mixture, the patient should undergo medical tests by the treating physician to monitor his or her health condition.
Individuals with significant chronic diseases like cancer, heart disease, and others should consider refraining from eating red meat during the treatment, refined sugar carbohydrates, fatty fried foods, trans fats synthetic preservatives and additives. They should increase intake of whole fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and healthy essential fatty acids high in Omega-3 instead.
The distillate is to preserve the mixture from perishing and also to act as a vasodilator (vessel dilator) in order to increase blood flow, speeding up the detoxifying action of the preparation. I suggest replacing the distillate with vinegar to preserve and enhance the absorption of aloe’s active ingredients like aloin.
The five-year aloe leaves, or fronds, should be harvested after sunset and before sunrise, as sunlight can destroy some of the plants important compounds. The leaves should be cut with care, because of their thorny edges. Time of harvesting should be respected with most medicinal herbs. Once cut in the dark, the leaves should be immediately wrapped in aluminum foil to protect its cancer-curing ingredients from the light. Because the aloe leaves are porous and absorbent, they should be picked at least one week after rainfall to maintain the plant’s effectiveness, as it is already 95 percent water.
The plant used for medicinal purposes should be grown away from contaminated water (sewers, pesticides), atmospheric pollutants (smoke, car exhaust) and toxic environments.
The honey should be of a superior quality and not heated, pasteurized, or commercial. Honey is important because of its bioavailability, active ingredients and richness in enzymes, antioxidants, amino acids, and other nutrients, which fortify and detoxify on the cellular level.
According to Father Zago, honey increases the potency of the formula, because “It is a vehicle that carries the aloe,” cleansing impurities from the body and blood. In a previous article about cancer, I gave the formula of another effective blend, equal parts of honey, garlic, and Sativa nigella (habbah sowda). It must not be forgotten that honey was recommended in the Holy Qur’an for its curative benefits (Surat Al-Nahl, or the chapter entitled “The Bees”).
The aloe mixture is also effective when taken along with chemical and radiation therapies to reduce undesired side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. It gives energy and bolsters strength and immunity. The course can be repeated at intervals as needed. Aloe is not toxic, but it should be taken with the knowledge of the doctor.
Word of caution. Treatment should not be interrupted; otherwise the cancer will retaliate with greater intensity and aggressively, multiplying cancer cells rapidly. Unless remedy is resumed immediately, healing becomes quite unlikely and the disease terminal. However, no matter how terminal the cancer stage is, the mixture can mitigate the disease.
The preparation can be taken once a year as a maintenance dose. For prevention, it should be taken for ten days once or twice a year to cleanse the body and blood. The recipe heals on the cellular level by resetting the immune system and making it functional to fight disease.
The need to detoxify with natural cleansers is more stringent than ever because environmental pollution and physical and emotional stressors have increased and toxic chemicals and materials and heavy metals are found everywhere in the food we eat, the water we drink, and the air we breathe.
The side effects of aloe are a few, but can occur. They range from frequent urination, dark urine, gas, and diarrhea to skin rash.
The dry form of aloe, sibr, found at traditional herbal stores, is extremely potent in the eradication of disease. Tiny amounts should be diluted in water and taken on an empty stomach. I heard of its effectiveness, first hand, from a woman who had breast cancer. A decade later, she is still alive.
There are other healing natural remedies for cancer and other diseases, such as mixing equal parts of garlic, nigella sativa (known in Arabic as “habba sawda”) and raw honey. Laetril, graviola, noni and mushrooms can also be taken along with chemotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and give energy (these have been discussed in earlier articles).
Indeed, chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs are not necessarily the only healers of cancer. They can heal, but immunity is often boosted and the quality of life enhancedv when accompanied by alternative therapies.
Consult your treating doctor before making decisions concerning treatment.
• Cancer can be Cured! By Father Romano Zago
• The Internet
• Natural Remedies of Saudi Arabia by Lebling and Pepperdine
• Prescription for Nutritional Healing by Phyllis A. Bach
• Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs by John Heinerman
Individuals with medical conditions or who are on medication should consult their physicians prior to introducing anything new to their diet, even if it is natural.
Previous health solution articles can be found on the Arab News website.
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